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Photography Series: Making the move from a smartphone to a DSLR

Posted by Christian Keyes on May 29, 2013. Tagged: creative

iPhone and DSLR

Chase Jarvis once said that the best camera is the one you have with you. Given the advent of smartphones and their built in cameras, nearly everyone has the ability to take a picture at any given moment. Couple that convenience and portability with social sharing and creative filtering, and you've got millions of new photographers creating art and learning basic principles of the craft. However, even an amateur photographer using their phone casually will inevitably begin to wonder what else is out there and how they can get started down the path towards becoming a more professional photographer with a more appropriate camera to take better pictures.

I need to be careful here about using words like "amateur", "professional", and "better". I also need to apologize in advance for using so many "air quotes" in this particular post. Let me first say that I cringe whenever I hear people speak in an elitist manner about photography and gear, especially when it comes down to the end result of the photos captured. The word "amateur" has a poor connotation that we need to discuss. If you took Latin or French, you'll remember that the root meaning of "amateur" merely denotes the "love" of something, not inexperience as it has become synonymous with in modern times. Photography is so closely tied to art that you have to change how you define a "good" photo. Granted there are "rules" that one can take when shooting to ensure proper exposure and composition, the best photographs are the ones that stay with you personally and emotionally. I've never heard anyone say they like a photo because of the composition alone, or only because the exposure was perfect. The subject and tone are what ultimately matter when shooting and reviewing photographs. Of course, a "professional" will generally have more expensive gear and experience, but even they may not share the same vision and enthusiasm as someone with modest equipment. Maybe you're in love with the act of taking pictures, but aren't always impressed with your results and the technical quality of your photos. Perhaps you're enjoying taking photos on your smartphone or point and shoot but don't see the merit in stepping up your game a bit. Here are some benefits you'll gain from making the jump to a DSLR.

DSLR

To really understand why a DSLR will give you creative freedom over your smartphone, we first have to understand exposure. This simply means the amount of light allowed to fall on the camera's sensor based on the control we have over said light.

There are three main components to exposure:


Aperture

The size of the "hole" we allow the light to pass through as it hits the sensor. This is extremely important and can be tough to understand when getting started in photography. All you need to know now is that the larger the hole, the more light we allow in, and the quicker we can achieve the proper exposure. Conversely, the smaller the aperture, the longer it takes to gather the necessary light. Things start to get complicated when you add the fact that as our aperture gets larger, our depth of field, or cross-section of the photo that is in focus, becomes less deep. As we reduce the size of our aperture, you guessed it; our depth of field becomes wider and more of our photo will be in focus.

This control is one of the key differences between smartphones and most other cameras. The variable control we gain with a DSLR is not available to us on a camera phone, as they have "fixed" apertures. Although good smartphone cameras don't have terrible specs when it comes to aperture size, control of our aperture gives us the freedom to take creative liberties with our photos.


Shutter Speed

This is the duration we allow light to hit our sensor. The faster the shutter speed, the easier it is to "stop" motion. Similarly, the longer we leave the shutter open, the more we see the effects of motion in our pictures. However, as is the case in many poor smartphone photos, these longer durations are what make photos look blurry. Our hands and arms move, our subjects move, and we miss moments. Even at speeds that sound fast, 1/20th or 1/40th of a second, we'll almost always get blurry results. Smartphone cameras choose shutter speeds automatically based on the amount of available light and the fixed aperture setting. The sequence below was taken with various shutter speeds while shooting a rolling car to highlight the stopping power of a fast shutter.

The brighter the scene, the faster the sensor will be able to gather the light, and the camera will be able to use a faster shutter speed. On the other end of this spectrum, dimly lit rooms and shots at night require much more time to expose the sensor, and we're more likely to be left with blurry pics. In these night shots especially, you'll start to see some "noise", or colorful pixels that generally detract from your photos. This is all tied in with the third area of exposure - ISO.


ISO

This third variable deals with the sensitivity of your camera's sensor to light. When plenty of light is available to us, our sensor doesn't have to guess or amplify light to provide a nice image. However, in darker situations, the need to amplify the electronic signal to gather light introduces unwanted noise - not unlike a microphone at a concert.


ISO numbers typically range from 100 all the way up to 3200 on the iPhone 5, and even higher on high end DSLRs. The higher the number, the more amplification and the more noise you'll see. With smartphones, since we don't have the ability to "open up" our aperture to gather more light, and if we can't slow down our shutter to collect the necessary light, the ISO must therefore be increased, generally resulting in noisy and poor quality images. Of course, we can take noisy pictures with a DSLR as well, but the expanded control we're afforded allows us to avoid this scenario.

Understanding how these three aspects of exposure work and interact together is the key to being a technically proficient and confident photographer. Playing and experimenting with these controls is the greatest benefit of using a DSLR over a smartphone. As with all creative endeavors, control, possibilities, and options are key. Control allows you to express your vision without compromise. At the risk of getting too deep here, loss of controls and variables can often be beneficial to creative types. Limitations force us to explore alternate methods and tricks to achieve unique results.


Additional Benefits of DSLRs


Interchangeable LensesCanon lens lineup

Beyond the control you gain from manipulating all aspects of exposure, a DSLR will also allow you to change lenses as necessary. Most entry level kits provide a standard zoom lens, which will allow you to photograph a wide variety of subjects. From there, you could choose to buy an additional lenses depending on what you enjoy shooting or to assist with tricky shooting situations. For example, one of my favorite lenses is actually very inexpensive: a 50mm f/1.8. The number followed by the f denotes the lens's aperture. The lower the number, the larger the hole for the light to pass through, the faster we can gather light, and the shallower the depth of field becomes; which is generally a very pleasing look for portraits. The 50mm focal length is very close to what the human eye sees, meaning your shots will feel very natural and true to life. If you want to gain additional reach, your next lens could be a telephoto zoom lens. An affordable and versatile option would be the 75-300mm f/4-5.6 lens. Between this, the 50mm, and a typical 18mm - 55mm kit lens, you'll have incredible flexibility. Something important to keep in mind is that "zooming" done on your smartphone is digital zoom, which ultimately degrades the image quality and is the equivalent of enlarging and cropping a file on your computer. Optical zoom through lenses is a far superior way of bringing the action closer, resulting in a crisper image.


RAW files

A RAW file taken from a DSLR contains more data that a flat .jpg file shot from a smartphone. These files are far more forgiving, even allowing us to lighten or darken an image's exposure without degrading its quality.  As much as we all love Instagram filters, even the greatest effect can't bring back an overexposed image back to life.


FlashSpeedlight

Sure, smartphones come equipped with a small LED flash, but these pale in comparison to the flash you'll find built in to most entry level DSLR kits. Taking this one step further, you can choose to add an external flash or "speedlight" to your camera to really illuminate the scene. Learning how to tame and modify light is critical to taking great pictures, and I'd actually advise against going too flash crazy when first learning how to wield your new camera. Think of your on camera flash the same way you do an oxygen mask on an airplane: it's good to know it's there, but you hope you don't have reason to use it.


Focusing

I've always hated trying to focus on my subject with a smartphone. Auto focus is always too slow, and as great as the concept of tap to focus is, I've been spoiled by the robust focusing systems built in to DSLRs. Smartphone cameras use contrast detection to discern what is crisp, while a DSLR uses multiple focus points and projected infrared grids to gather information about the distance and position of subjects. Although I don't use it often, I also really appreciate the ability to manually focus on what I'm shooting. Removing the technological assistance can be uncomfortable at times, but is ultimately very empowering to be in complete control of what is in focus. Lastly, a quick auto focus system, or skilled manual focusing, cuts down on the time between seeing something worthy of shooting, and taking the actual shot. I can't think of anything worse than missing a smile or glance from a subject because I had to wait for my smartphone to clumsily detect what I was trying to shoot. Second to that frustration is trying to gauge what I'm looking at on my smartphone's LCD on a blazing sunny day.


Image size and quality

Quality over quantity doesn't just apply to the photos you take and the lenses you own; it is also a great way of understanding megapixels and the images you shoot. Although most smartphones boast cameras with 6, 8, 16 and even 41 megapixels, this doesn't mean a whole lot unless they're good pixels. Sensor size means a lot when talking about the quality of pixels and how they're interpreted. A typical smartphone camera sensor is about the size of a Tic-Tac mint, while an entry level DSLR has a sensor closer to the size of a normal postage stamp. Both cameras could offer you a 16 megapixel file, but the larger sensor can more accurately translate what it has seen because the "pixel density" is closer to a 1:1 ratio.


What should I buy?

Without going too in-depth about the merits of every camera released in the last ten years, all I'll say is that you don't need the newest camera on the market to learn and practice photography. In fact, I suggest the opposite; buy the most affordable yet capable DSLR kit you can get your hands on. Don't be afraid to buy a used or refurbished camera, or even one that is a few years old. With the exception of minor enhancements and video features, most entry level cameras haven't improved by leaps and bounds that would matter to someone just starting out. One of my favorite cameras to carry around on a day out is an 8 year old, 8 megapixel Canon that I don't need to worry too much about dropping and abusing. Save your money for an additional "fast" lens, like the 50mm f/1.8 I mentioned earlier. Both Canon and Nikon offer this lens for less than $120. Mine is nearly 10 years old and works as well now as the day I bought it! The most important thing is to buy something you're comfortable with and get out there! 

I'm sure that nobody reading this is pretending that their smartphone can take a better picture (technically speaking) than a DSLR, and it shouldn't be expected to (yet). Hopefully this post has shed a little light on the subject of making the exploratory jump to a DSLR if you're really enjoying the freedom and creativity that your smartphone camera has afforded you. In the end, the best camera is the one you have with you, so why not try carrying a better camera with you wherever you go? Personally, I've had a long time love of photography, and I hope that anyone trying to flex their creative and artistic chops will take the leap to photographing with a camera that will best serve their passion.

I've intended this post to be just one in a series of helpful photography lessons. I look forward to exploring more on controlling exposure and thinking differently about how you shoot pictures. The more you understand how your camera functions, the easier it becomes to take great pictures. Thanks for reading!


Additional Resources

http://www.exposureguide.com/photography-basics.htm
http://www.photographymad.com/pages/view/10-top-photography-composition-rules

Our Award Winning NESHCo Experience

Posted by Katie Desmond on May 23, 2013. Tagged: awards, best practices, clients, mobile

We have just returned from the NESHCo Conference where we had a really great time and met a lot of smart healthcare marketers. The sessions were fantastic, one of which was a panel discussing the impact that the Boston Marathon Bombing had on some of the hospitals in Boston. Overall, attendees found it incredibly moving.

We had a lot of great conversations and we really welcomed the opportunity to share with others our work for Anna Jaques Hospital. Through an amazing collaboration with our client we were able to plan, design, and deliver an award-winning website that took the honors of a Silver Lamplighter Award!

We couldn't be more proud of the work we have done with Anna Jaques Hospital and our other healthcare clients. For more information about our healthcare experience or if you are wondering if your website needs a check-up, visit: www.imarc.net/hospital for helpful tips, best practices, and an RFP template!




Next Up...NESHCo's Spring Symposium!

Posted by Katie Mack on May 16, 2013. Tagged: events

We're busy getting ready for the New England Society for Healthcare Communications (NESHCo) conference next week in lovely Newport, RI to demonstrate the latest work we've done in healthcare. It's our first time attending the event, so we decided to make a splash by developing some helpful resources for healthcare communication professionals that cover best practices in healthcare marketing on the web. These resources include:

  • A quick survey to evaluate your website's health
  • A downloadable website redesign RFP template
  • A checklist for writing a great website redesign RFP

You can check out these helpful tools at http://www.imarc.net/hospital.

We look forward to kicking off the conference on Sunday with fellow attendees from across New England by touring the historic mansions of Newport. You can then find Katie Desmond and I in the exhibit hall on Monday, May 20 and Tuesday, May 21. If you are attending, be sure to stop by our booth for a chance to win an iPad Mini that we will be giving away! Katie and I will also be available to start exploring your next website or mobile project.

If you're a healthcare communicator unable to travel to Newport next week, be sure to follow @imarcllc on Twitter for great insight from the conference.


iMarc Honored with 4 Communicator Awards of Distinction

Posted by Katie Mack on May 13, 2013. Tagged: awards, clients

Communicator Awards Silver Trophy

One of the best messages I get to deliver to our clients start with, "Your website is an award-winner!"

Our team now has the honor to share with three of our clients the 2013 Communicator Award of Distinction, as well as celebrate the recognition we received for the successful launch of iMarc's new website last Fall.

The Communicator Awards is the leading international awards program honoring the creative excellence for communication professionals. This year, over 6,000 entries were judged by the International Academy of the Visual Arts (IAVA).

We're thrilled to share these awards with our deserving clients. The accolades represent our commitment to excellence across all industries.

"We're excited to be recognized for the quality of work we delivered for our clients this past year. We also put a lot of work into developing a best in class website as we redesigned our own and appreciate the nod we've received from the IAVA. It's great to see our hard work pay off!" - Nick Grant, VP, Director of Operations


Mobile & Tablet Stats, by industry, March 2013

Posted by Robert Mohns on April 24, 2013. Tagged: mobile

I've been tracking mobile stats for years, both within the smartphone market, and as a proportion of overall use.

I've recently gone through the analytics for our active clients, and mobile use is very high — 9.6% of traffic. But there is huge variation by industry, with B2B on the low end and cultural organizations and consumer at the high end.

I'll save you 931 more words with this chart:

iMarc Client Mobile (Smartphone and Tablet) visit share, March 2013


(Still no answer to why there's no 7" tablet traffic to speak of; in March we saw a few Galaxy Tab 7's, a couple Kindle Fires, an Asus Transformer, and that's about it. Nothing compared to the sheer number of iPads. Ping @imarcllc if you have any intel.)

A Moment of Reflection and Thanks

Posted by Katie Mack on April 22, 2013. Tagged: culture

This afternoon, iMarc will be observing with the rest of Massachusetts a moment of silence to honor the Boston Marathon victims and their families. It's difficult to comprehend that our backyard metropolitan was rocked just a week ago by tragedy during one of the most prestigious and historic competitions in the world. I had personally just been to the race expo at the Hynes Convention Center that prior weekend and traveled down on race day to cheer along the course route outside of the city in Framingham at the 7-mile marker. I was safely back in Newburyport by the time reports came streaming in from the media, and turned my attention to checking in and accounting for those known to be in Boston for the race.

As shocking as last Monday was, the events that unfolded over the week were just as incomprehensible. I personally was in London for a very exciting business meeting by the time Friday rolled around and, with the five hour time difference, was aware of everything being reported back home before many in my circles had even woken up to hear news that the city had been shut down and a manhunt was underway.

London showed Boston so much spirit and support, it was moving to witness during my time there. Friday was a tense day overseas for me as I tried to keep abreast of what was unfolding back home while taking in Big Ben, the London Eye, and Westminster Abbey. Anytime I mentioned to someone that I hailed from the Boston area, I was given thoughtful condolences and words of encouragement that, just as London had in 2005, Bostonians would prevail.

I was so happy and relieved to see the London Marathon on Sunday turn out to be a huge success. The outpouring of support and remembrance turned this marathon into the perfect celebration of human perseverance. Running 26.2 miles is always a test of strength, but doing so after a tragedy the magnitude of Boston sends an amazing message to the world. There was one banner I saw in London that truly moved me: "Run if you can. Walk if you must. But finish for Boston." That meant a lot. London will forever solidify a place in my heart for being so kind and respectful in paying tribute to my home's strength.

Thank you London & Love you Boston.

Legal Marketing Tips

Posted by Katie Desmond on April 9, 2013. Tagged: best practices, creative, design, social media

We have arrived at the LMA Conference here in Las Vegas and as the New Kid in Town, we are really having a fabulous time and meeting a lot of great people.  As part of our experience, we are getting a lot of questions about specific topics that impact the Legal Market. We have collected some of our most relevant blog posts to help guide our colleagues through the legal marketing world. 

  1. A lot of people that we have talked to have recently updated their site within the past 2-3 years but are wondering with some of the changes on the market if its time to revisit it. This post will help answer that question: Signs it's Time to Update Your Site Pronto.
  2. We are really proud of the work we have accomplished for Wilson Elser, check out what made the project so successful: Three C's to Site Launch Celebration - Congrats Wilson Elser!
  3. Social Media is a big question as a lot of firms are just starting to dabble in it, these two posts will help set you on your way: Extending Your Brand on Social Media and LinkedIn Company Page Pointers.
  4. Blogging is another important component of B2B sites, but Should your B2B site have blog comments? 

For more smart marketing tips and to learn more about our experience, please stop by our Booth #326 for more advice! And who knows you may just even win an iPad mini!

Look out LMA...There's a New Kid in Town!

Posted by Katie Mack on April 2, 2013. Tagged: clients, events

We’re one week away from heading out to the Legal Marketing Association (LMA) National Conference at the Aria Resort in Las Vegas to demonstrate the latest work that we’ve done for Wilson Elser – an AM Law 100 firm. It’s our first time attending the conference, and in preparation we have developed some helpful resources to share that cover best practices for legal marketing on the web. These resources include:

  • A quick 8 question survey to evaluate your current website performance
  • A downloadable website redesign project RFP template
  • Checklist for writing a great website redesign RFP

We invite you to check out these valuable tools at http://www.imarc.net/legal.

If you are traveling to the LMA Conference, we look forward to seeing you there! Our President, Nils Menten, and Director of New Business, Katie Desmond, will be exhibiting at the conference on Tuesday, April 9 and Wednesday, April 10. Be sure to stop by Booth #326 for a chance to win one of two iPad Minis that we will be giving away to lucky conference attendees! Also, Nils and Katie will be available to start exploring your next website or mobile project.

If you are in the legal sector but cannot make it to the conference, be sure to follow @imarcllc on Twitter and the LMA Conference live feed at #LMA13 for great insight and updates from Las Vegas.

What's Old is New Again - in Healthcare!

Posted by Katie Mack on March 29, 2013. Tagged: clients, design, engineering, strategy, user experience

We are thrilled to share our latest launches for both the Massachusetts Biotechnology Education Foundation (MassBioEd) and the Harvard Clinical Research Institute (HCRI)! These long time clients of iMarc are doing incredible work in the healthcare and biotechnology community, and we are happy to support them.

MassBioEd

http://www.massbioed.org

Since 2006, we have partnered with MassBioEd, a resource for educators, students, postdocs, and industry professionals to advance STEM and biotechnology education. MassBioEd is committed to cultivating the biotech industry through educational initiatives than span from elementary school to professional development. To help maintain its position at the forefront of biotechnology education, iMarc and MassBioEd embarked together on a redesign of its website to deliver a targeted, user centric experience with the results now live as of March 2013.

iMarc redeveloped the Foundation’s website with the objective to deliver critical information to students, educators, and professionals passionate about science education. Site visitors can access learning resources, register for corporate professional development courses, and donate to the Foundation from the website. One of my favorite features on this new site is the interactive search toolbar on the homepage allowing site visitors to self identify right away and be presented with the content relevant to their interests.

HCRI

http://www.hcri.harvard.edu

Also this month, we launched HCRI’s new website. We’ve been working with HCRI since 2007 and this is the second iteration of the site that we’ve created for them in our 6 years together. In its latest iteration, the website features elevated visual design that personalizes the Institute’s research and aligns closer to the Harvard brand. We focused heavily on the presentation of their publications, and created tools for filtering through materials based on category, faculty member, and therapeutic area. As part of our project, we also conducted photography on-site at HCRI, and the new Leadership Bios reflect the outcome of this service. This website was built upon our full site content management system (CMS) that now gives HCRI staff the latest tools and technologies to power site content.

Here at iMarc we are committed to healthcare and will be attending the New England Society for Healthcare Communications (NESHCo) conference in May. We hope to see you there!

I Will Work for Free

Posted by Matthew Sahagian on March 18, 2013. Tagged: culture, open source, rants

If you promise to keep my ideas and work free (as in speech), I will work for free (as in beer).

After a statement like that, we probably need some clarification. Just like any other viable web and media production company on the planet, iMarc licenses client-code under terms which are conducive to its business goals. But what licenses do individual developers make use of? More importantly, why do they use those licenses?

Statistics on this issue vary widely. According to Black Duck Software1, the GNU General Public License versions 2 and 3 account for nearly 45% of open source projects. While the lesser versions, takes up another 9% or so. Comparing this number to another page2 referencing the same company's data in March of 2011, we see a drop of about 7% in overall usage.

I'm not going to speculate as to why this may be the case, but there are a number of competing open source licenses which serve a number of different uses and purposes in particular contexts. At iMarc, for example, we frequently make use of MIT and BSD licensed code. Unlike the GPL and its variants, this code can be passed onto our clients without having to concern ourselves with overt sub-licensing terms or the need to place them under any additional obligations.

Recently, iMarc has also started releasing some of its own internally developed code on our GitHub page under the MIT license. Due to the obligations which the GPL enforces, licenses like MIT avoid much of the stigma surrounding its use in business.  Why then do I use the GPL/AGPL for 99% of the software I write?

Freedom.

Freedom of Ideas

The Free Software Foundation makes a big distinction between open source and free software. While the GPL is often considered a "more restrictive" license, it is restrictive only insofar as it obligates distributors to ensure it remains open. What does this mean practically? It means that if you incorporate any portion of GPL code into your code, you must license the combined work under the same terms, if you intend to distribute it.

To make a case for why this is not only positive, but preferable, I will rely on two premises.

  • Software is an idea.
  • Ideas "want" and ultimately need to be free.

The first premise requires us to assert that software, unlike other commoditized wares, is materially non-existent. Yes, yes, we need hard drives to store it, computers to interpret it, and even electrons or photons to "ship it." But these are not conditions of the thing itself, merely the expression of the thing. If my hard drive has bad blocks, it is not the software that is damaged, merely the drive. The only thing that could possibly be lost with regards to the software, is a single expression of it (albeit a digitally perfect one).

It may be argued that software is more than an idea; that it is the particular implementation of an idea. This argument, however, seems to contradict how we speak about ideas in ordinary terms. We do not, for example, claim that the Golden Rule, as expressed by Confucius, is of a fundamentally different nature than that of, say, Pittacus.3  On the contrary, we recognize that despite having been expressed in different languages and with different phrasing, the core value proposition of each is essentially equal.

Software, likewise, is capable of being expressed in a multitude of languages with diverse organizational characteristics or "phrasing" if you will. To damage software, as with anything else, we must be able to show that it is possible to reduce its value proposition by some positive action. But if we wish to truly equate software to an idea, then to do this we need to decouple it from the expression or implementation of it.

How, then, can we damage software? Exactly the same way that we damage an idea!

In modern and free societies we have started to recognize that things like the First Amendment are conducive not only to the liberty of individuals, but to the rapid progression of our technological and economic condition. What use does a great idea, if expressed to no one, serve? And what use if only expressed to a select few?

An idea unexpressed is inevitably a dead idea; buried with its creator. Thus, an idea under-expressed is a damaged idea. It is an idea which cannot ever be developed to its fullest potential as its full potential necessitates it to be received, examined, and developed by the broadest amount of people possible.4

It means nothing then to say that we damage software by restricting the software itself because, like ideas, software is not self-expressive. Substantially, we can only damage software by restricting people.

Freedom of People

The earlier mention that the MIT license is considered "less restrictive" than the GPL is chiefly derived from a single additional allowance. Namely, you are allowed to "close" the software. That is to say, you have essentially all the same freedoms as you do with the GPL, except you are granted the additional allowance to restrict those freedoms for any third party to whom you distribute it.

Imagine now, if you would, a single idea or bit of knowledge that is radically important to our human understanding or condition. Got one? Now, imagine in the infancy of its development that those who received it had the absolute freedom to do with it as we can with open source software. If they could dissect it, build on it, modify it to be better in some way, and share it with others, we would surely recognize this as not only an asset to free society, but a pillar of it.

Now imagine the complete opposite.

More, the restriction of even a single afforementioned freedom with regards to ideas (software) could have potentially devastating consequences on our society or social progression.

What Do I Care?

I owe a lot to free software. Indeed, I would wager that I owe the entirety of my programming knowledge to it. It has not only directly contributed to my own ideas, but has provided me the means to express them. In a world where high-technology is becoming increasingly important to the human condition, often times superseding more traditional technology, I believe it to be not only a moral but a practical imperative to ensure that free software is not simply protected, but encouraged.

If your next great idea extends, builds on, or merely modifies mine in some way, even marginally, then I am going to do everything I can to ensure that our idea continues to be afforded to as many people as it can be in the same manner to which it was afforded to you.


  1. The page at http://osrc.blackducksoftware.com/data/licenses/ contains daily updated statistics on licenses. 

  2. John Haller consolidated these statistics in March of 2011 at the following site: http://johnhaller.com/jh/useful_stuff/open_source_license_popularity/ 

  3. This is not to say that the same idea cannot be developed independently by two separate individuals given similar preconditions. 

  4. I am not proposing "design by committee," merely making a simple point that more exposure amounts to those who could and would make positive contributions, doing so. 

  5. Light bulb image retrieved from: http://www.publicdomainpictures.net